Les médias sociaux dans la formation: Articles par thème

Les medias sociaux dans la formation des médecins et professionnels de la santé

1. Éducation inter professionnelle
2. Développement professionnel
3. Recensement des écrits
4. Sondages, focus groups, entrevues: Perceptions, attitudes
5. Applications des medias sociaux dans un cours ou programme: exemples concrets

1. Éducation inter professionnelle

Cain, J., Chretien, K. (2013). Exploring social media’s potential in interprofessional education. Journal of Research in Inter professional Practice and Education, JRIPE, 3 (2).

Social media applications such as Facebook, Twitter, and blogs have become part of mainstream society and are currently being used throughout health professions education. The asynchronous nature and conversational aspects of social media permit learners to collaborate with and learn from others in different fields. Interprofessional education (IPE) is a growing paradigm in health professions schools for a variety of reasons, including the desire to teach future practitioners how to communicate with each other and engage in collaborative care. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of IPE curricula, those programs must overcome numerous logistical barriers to be successful. Finding suitable times and locations for interprofessional students to meet and arranging opportunities for them to collab- orate on healthcare issues are just two of the logistical impediments to IPE imple- mentation. Fortunately, the asynchronous, conversational, and collaborative aspects of social media applications enable them to facilitate interprofessional communication and alleviate some of the time and space issues. In this article, we describe in further detail the merits of social media relevant to IPE, provide specific examples of how social media can be used to enhance aspects of IPE pro- grams, and make a call for further research in this area.

Giordano., Giordano. (2011). Health professions students’ use of social media. J Allied Health, 40 (2) 78–81.

The internet is increasingly a part of everyday life by facilitating networking opportunities and offering ways to associate with others who have similar interests, values, or goals. An online survey was administered to 644 first-year students and 413 graduating students via Surveymonkey to investigate their media preferences, to gauge if they are active on social media sites, and to evaluate how they responded to advertisements. Students were in the following health professions: biotechnology, couple and family therapy, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, public health, radiologic and imaging sciences, and pharmacy. Results indicate that students prefer online media as their primary source of information. The majority of students were using Facebook, and very few were using Twitter or LinkedIn or other social networking sites. Understanding social media usage has several implications for educating, connecting with, and researching health professions students from all stages of their academic career.

Pittenger, A. (2013). The use of social networking to improve the quality of interprofessional education . American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77 (8) Article 174.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using an online social networking platform for interprofessional education. Design: Three groups of 6 students were formed with 1 student in each group from medicine, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, veterinary medicine, and public health. Each group followed a different collaborative educational model with a unique pedagogical structure. Students in all groups interacted via an online social networking platform for a minimum of 15 weeks and met in person once at the end of the 15-week experience for a focus group session. The students were tasked with developing a collaborative recommendation for using social networking in interprofessional education programs. Assessment: Most of the students who reported in a post-experience survey that their expectations were not met were in the minimally structured group. Almost all students in the facilitated and highly structured groups indicated that this experience positively impacted their knowledge of other health professions. Most students stated that interacting within a social networking space for 15 weeks with other members of the university’s health professions programs was a positive and effective interprofessional education experience. Conclusion: Social networking is feasible and can be used effectively within an overall strategy for interprofessional education, but design and placement within a core content course is critical to success.

2. Développement professionnel

Cahn, PS., Benjamin, EJ., Shanahan, CW. (2013). ‘Uncrunching’time: medical schools’ use of social media for faculty development. Med Educ Online, 18, 1-6.

Purpose: The difficulty of attracting attendance for in-person events is a problem common to all faculty development efforts. Social media holds the potential to disseminate information asynchronously while building a community through quick, easy-to-use formats. The authors sought to document creative uses of social media for faculty development in academic medical centers. Method: In December 2011, the first author (P.S.C.) examined the websites of all 154 accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada for pages relevant to faculty development. The most popular social media sites and searched for accounts maintained by faculty developers in academic medicine were also visited. Several months later, in February 2012, a second investigator (C.W.S.) validated these data via an independent review. Results: Twenty-two (22) medical schools (14.3%) employed at least one social media technology in support of faculty development. In total, 40 instances of social media tools were identified the most popular platforms being Facebook (nine institutions), Twitter (eight institutions), and blogs (eight institutions). Four medical schools, in particular, have developed integrated strategies to engage faculty in online communities. Conclusions: Although relatively few medical schools have embraced social media to promote faculty development, the present range of such uses demonstrates the flexibility and affordability of the tools. The most popular tools incorporate well into faculty members’ existing use of technology and require minimal additional effort. Additional research into the benefits of engaging faculty through social media may help overcome hesitation to invest in new technologies.

3. Recensement des écrits

Cheston, CC., Flickinger, TE., Chisolm, MS. (2013). Social media use in medical education: A systematic review. Academic Medicine, 88 (6), 893-901. (Harvard Medical School).

Purpose: The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on social media use in medical education to answer two questions: (1) How have interventions using social media tools affected outcomes of satisfaction, knowledge, attitudes, and skills for physicians and physicians-in-training? and (2) What challenges and opportunities specific to social media have educators encountered in implementing these interventions? Method: The authors searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (from the start of each through September 12, 2011) using keywords related to social media and medical education. Two authors independently reviewed the search results to select peer-reviewed, English-language articles discussing social media use in educational interventions at any level of physician training. They assessed study quality using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. Results: Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions using social media tools were associated with improved knowledge (e.g., exam scores), attitudes (e.g., empathy), and skills (e.g., reflective writing). The most commonly reported opportunities related to incorporating social media tools were promoting learner engagement (71% of studies), feedback (57%), and collaboration and professional development (both 36%). The most commonly cited challenges were technical issues (43%), variable learner participation (43%), and privacy/security concerns (29%). Studies were generally of low to moderate quality; there was only one randomized controlled trial. Conclusions: Social media use in medical education is an emerging field of scholarship that merits further investigation. Educators face challenges in adapting new technologies, but they also have opportunities for innovation.

Dabbagh, N., Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. Internet and Higher Education. 15 (1), 3-6.

A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection between PLE, social media, and self-regulated learning, and (c) provide a three-level pedagogical framework for using social media to create PLEs that support student self-regulated learning. Implications for future research in this area are provided.

Gholami-Kordkheili,F., Wild, V., Strech, D. (2013). The Impact of Social Media on Medical Professionalism: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Challenges and Opportunities. J Med Internet Res, 15 (8):e184

Background: The rising impact of social media on the private and working lives of health care professionals has made researchers and health care institutions study and rethink the concept and content of medical professionalism in the digital age. In the last decade, several specific policies, original research studies, and comments have been published on the responsible use of social media by health care professionals. However, there is no systematic literature review that analyzes the full spectrum of (1) social media–related challenges imposed on medical professionalism and (2) social media–related opportunities to both undermine and improve medical professionalism. Objective: The aim of this systematic qualitative review is to present this full spectrum of social media–related challenges and opportunities. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English and German literature published between 2002 and 2011) for papers that address social media–related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. To operationalize “medical professionalism”, we refer to the 10 commitments presented in the physicians’ charter “Medical professionalism in the new millennium” published by the ABIM Foundation. We applied qualitative text analysis to categorize the spectrum of social media–related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. Results: The literature review retrieved 108 references, consisting of 46 original research studies and 62 commentaries, editorials, or opinion papers. All references together mentioned a spectrum of 23 broad and 12 further-specified, narrow categories for social media–related opportunities (n=10) and challenges (n=13) for medical professionalism, grouped under the 10 commitments of the physicians’ charter. Conclusions: The accommodation of the traditional core values of medicine to the characteristics of social media presents opportunities as well as challenges for medical professionalism. As a profession that is entitled to self-regulation, health care professionals should proactively approach these challenges and seize the opportunities. There should be room to foster interprofessional and intergenerational dialogue (and eventually guidelines and policies) on both challenges and opportunities of social media in modern health care. This review builds a unique source of information that can inform further research and policy development in this regard.

Ellaway, RH., Coral, J., Topps, D., Topps, M. (2015). Exploring digital professionalism. Medical Teacher, 1-6. Early online.

The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

Grajales, FJ., Sheps, S., Ho, K., Novak-Lauscher, H., Eyesenbach, G. (2014). Social media: A review and tutorial of applications in medicine and health care. J Med Internet Res 16 (2):e13.

Background: Social media are dynamic and interactive computer-mediated communication tools that have high penetration rates in the general population in high-income and middle-income countries. However, in medicine and health care, a large number of stakeholders (eg, clinicians, administrators, professional colleges, academic institutions, ministries of health, among others) are unaware of social media’s relevance, potential applications in their day-to-day activities, as well as the inherent risks and how these may be attenuated and mitigated. Objective: We conducted a narrative review with the aim to present case studies that illustrate how, where, and why social media are being used in the medical and health care sectors. Methods: Using a critical-interpretivist framework, we used qualitative methods to synthesize the impact and illustrate, explain, and provide contextual knowledge of the applications and potential implementations of social media in medicine and health care. Both traditional (eg, peer-reviewed) and nontraditional (eg, policies, case studies, and social media content) sources were used, in addition to an environmental scan (using Google and Bing Web searches) of resources. Results: We reviewed, evaluated, and synthesized 76 articles, 44 websites, and 11 policies/reports. Results and case studies are presented according to 10 different categories of social media: (1) blogs (eg, WordPress), (2) microblogs (eg, Twitter), (3) social networking sites (eg, Facebook), (4) professional networking sites (eg, LinkedIn, Sermo), (5) thematic networking sites (eg, 23andMe), (6) wikis (eg, Wikipedia), (7) mashups (eg, HealthMap), (8) collaborative filtering sites (eg, Digg), (9) media sharing sites (eg, YouTube, Slideshare), and others (eg, SecondLife). Four recommendations are provided and explained for stakeholders wishing to engage with social media while attenuating risk: (1) maintain professionalism at all times, (2) be authentic, have fun, and do not be afraid, (3) ask for help, and (4) focus, grab attention, and engage. Conclusions: The role of social media in the medical and health care sectors is far reaching, and many questions in terms of governance, ethics, professionalism, privacy, confidentiality, and information quality remain unanswered. By following the guidelines presented, professionals have a starting point to engage with social media in a safe and ethical manner. Future research will be required to understand the synergies between social media and evidence-based practice, as well as develop institutional policies that benefit patients, clinicians, public health practitioners, and industry alike.

Grindrod, K., Forgione, A., Tsuyuki, RT., Gavura, S., Giustini, D. (2014). Pharmacy 2.0: A scoping review of social media use in pharmacy. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 10:1, 256-270.

New “social” information and communication technologies such as social media and smartphones are allowing non-experts to access, interpret and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Pharmacists may also benefit from increased connectivity, but first there needs to be an understanding of how pharmacists engage with social media. A scoping review methodology was used to describe pharmacist and pharmacy student participation in social media networks and to describe the gaps in research. Three themes that emerged from reviewing social media use in pharmacy education were student engagement, boundaries and e-professionalism. For pharmacists, the themes of liability and professional use were prominent. Few pharmacy leadership organizations are providing guidance on social media but that appears to be changing. As the control of medical knowledge shifts from health professionals to the larger social community, pharmacists need to be present. Social media use and training in undergraduate programs is promising but experienced pharmacists also need to join the conversation.

Hamm, MO., Chisolm, A., Shulhan, J. et al. (2013). Social media use by health care professionals and trainees: A scoping review. Academic Medicine, 88 (9), 1376-1383.

Purpose: To conduct a scoping review of the literature on social media use by health care professionals and trainees. Method: The authors searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL Plus Full Text, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge, and ProQuest for studies published between 2000 and 2012. They included those reporting primary research on social media use by health care professionals or trainees. Two reviewers screened studies for eligibility; one reviewer extracted data and a second verified a 10% sample. They analyzed data descriptively to determine which social media tools were used, by whom, for what purposes, and how they were evaluated. Results: The authors included 96 studies in their review. Discussion forums were the most commonly studied tools (43/96; 44.8%). Researchers more often studied social media in educational than practice settings. Of common specialties, administration, critical appraisal, and research appeared most often (11/96; 11.5%), followed by public health (9/96; 9.4%). The objective of most tools was to facilitate communication (59/96; 61.5%) or improve knowledge (41/96; 42.7%). Thirteen studies evaluated effectiveness (13.5%), and 41 (42.7%) used a cross-sectional design. Conclusions: These findings provide a map of the current literature on social media use in health care, identify gaps in that literature, and provide direction for future research. Social media use is widespread, particularly in education settings. The versatility of these tools suggests their suitability for use in a wide range of professional activities. Studies of their effectiveness could inform future practice.

Hamm, MP., Chisholm, A., Shulhan,J., Milne, A., Scott, SD., Given, LM., Hartling, L. (2013). Social media use among patients and caregivers: a scoping review. BMJ OPEN, May 9; 3 (5).

Objective : To map the state of the existing literature evaluating the use of social media in patient and caregiver populations. Design : Scoping review. Data sources : Medline, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL Plus Full Text, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge and ProQuest (2000–2012). Study selection : Studies reporting primary research on the use of social media (collaborative projects, blogs/microblogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual worlds) by patients or caregivers. Data extraction : Two reviewers screened studies for eligibility; one reviewer extracted data from relevant studies and a second performed verification for accuracy and completeness on a 10% sample. Data were analysed to describe which social media tools are being used, by whom, for what purpose and how they are being evaluated. Results Two hundred eighty-four studies were included. Discussion forums were highly prevalent and constitute 66.6% of the sample. Social networking sites (14.8%) and blogs/microblogs (14.1%) were the next most commonly used tools. The intended purpose of the tool was to facilitate self-care in 77.1% of studies. While there were clusters of studies that focused on similar conditions (eg, lifestyle/weight loss (12.7%), cancer (11.3%)), there were no patterns in the objectives or tools used. A large proportion of the studies were descriptive (42.3%); however, there were also 48 (16.9%) randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Among the RCTs, 35.4% reported statistically significant results favouring the social media intervention being evaluated; however, 72.9% presented positive conclusions regarding the use of social media. Conclusions There is an extensive body of literature examining the use of social media in patient and caregiver populations. Much of this work is descriptive; however, with such widespread use, evaluations of effectiveness are required. In studies that have examined effectiveness, positive conclusions are often reported, despite non-significant findings.

Mayer MA, Leis A, Mayer A, Rodriguez-Gonzalez A. (2012). How medical doctors and students should use Social Media: a review of the main guidelines for proposing practical recommendations. Stud Health Technol Inform. 180:853-7.

Social Media has grown exponentially and in the last few years there has been an increasing use amongst medical doctors and students. There is intense debate about the complexities of ensuring medical professionalism in the digital age and especially on using open and massive online services. The objectives of this paper are: first, to gather the main recommendations on using Social Media platforms and websites by medical doctors and students, which are proposed by several international organizations, institutions and universities of reference and second, to propose a set of practical recommendations, based on the comparison of the statements and items of the guidelines, in order to find agreements and differences among them and select the most common and practical items stated. A Decalogue of good practices has been drawn up, pointing out the most important aspects that should be considered, highlighting the relevance of maintaining professional behavior in these environments, taking into account the advantages and drawbacks when using them.

Paton, C., Bamidis, P., Eysenbach, G., Hansen, MM., Cabrer, M. (2011). Experience in the use of social media in medical and health education.  Nursing and Health Professions Faculty Research. Paper 6. University of San Francisco.

Objectives: Social media are online tools that allow collaboration and community building. Succinctly, they can be described as applications where “users add value”. This paper aims to show how five educators have used social media tools in medical and health education to attempt to add value to the education they provide. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature about the use of social media tools in medical and health education. Each of the authors reported on their use of social media in their educational projects and collaborated on a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to delivering educational projects. Results: We found little empirical evidence to support the use of social media tools in medical and health education. Social media are, however, a rapidly evolving range of tools, websites and online experiences and it is likely that the topic is too broad to draw definitive conclusions from any particular study. As practitioners in the use of social media, we have recognised how difficult it is to create evidence of effectiveness and have therefore presented only our anecdotal opinions based on our personal experiences of using social media in our educational projects. Conclusion: The authors feel confident in recommending that other educators use social media in their educational projects. Social media appear to have unique advantages over non-social educational tools. The learning experience appears to be enhanced by the ability of students to virtually build connections, make friends and find mentors. Creating a scientific analysis of why these connections enhance learning is difficult, but anecdotal and preliminary survey evidence appears to be positive and our experience reflects the hypothesis that learning is, at heart, a social activity.

Verhoef, LM., Van de Belt, TH., Engelen, L., Schoonhoven, L., Kool, R. (2014). Social media and rating sites as tools to understanding quality of care : A scoping review. J Med Internet Res 16 (2):e56

Background: Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient’s perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these “traditional” methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. Objective: The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. Methods: We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Results: Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies indicate a relationship between information on social media and quality of health care. However, some drawbacks exist, especially regarding the use of rating sites. For example, since rating is anonymous, rating values are not risk adjusted and therefore vulnerable to fraud. Also, ratings are often based on only a few reviews and are predominantly positive. Furthermore, people providing feedback on health care via social media are presumably not always representative for the patient population. Conclusions: Social media and particularly rating sites are an interesting new source of information about quality of care from the patient’s perspective. This new source should be used to complement traditional methods, since measuring quality of care via social media has other, but not less serious, limitations. Future research should explore whether social media are suitable in practice for patients, health insurers, and governments to help them judge the quality performance of professionals and organizations.

4. Sondages, focus groups, entrevues: Perceptions, attitudes

Antheunis, ML., Tates, K., Nieboer, TE. (2013). Patients’ and health professionals’ use of social media in health care : Motives, barriers and expectations. Patient Education and Counseling, 92, 426-431.

Objective: To investigate patients’ and health professionals’ (a) motives and use of social media for health-related reasons, and (b) barriers and expectations for health-related social media use. Methods: We conducted a descriptive online survey among 139 patients and 153 health care professionals in obstetrics and gynecology. In this survey, we asked the respondents about their motives and use of social network sites (SNS: Facebook and Hyves), Twitter, LinkedIn, and YouTube. Results: Results showed that patients primarily used Twitter (59.9%), especially for increasing knowledge and exchanging advice and Facebook (52.3%), particularly for social support and exchanging advice. Professionals primarily used LinkedIn (70.7%) and Twitter (51.2%), for communication with their colleagues and marketing reasons. Patients’ main barriers for social media use were privacy concerns and unreliability of the information. Professionals’ main barriers were inefficiency and lack of skills. Both patients and professionals expected future social media use, provided that they can choose their time of social media usage. Conclusion: The results indicate disconcordance in patients’ and professionals’ motives and use of social media in health care. Practice implications: Future studies on social media use in health care should not disregard participants’ underlying motives, barriers and expectations regarding the (non)use of social media.

Chretien KC, Goldman EF, Beckman L, Kind T. (2010). It’s your own risk: medical students’ perspectives on online professionalism. Acad Med.,85 (10 Suppl):S68-S71.

Background: U.S. medical schools have reported unprofessional online content by medical students. To inform institutional policies and curricula, we conducted a qualitative study exploring medical student perspectives on online posting. Method:Six focus groups were conducted with students from a single institution in November 2009. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Results: Sixty-four students participated. Besides HIPAA violations and illegal activities, students disagreed as to what was inappropriate to post. They experienced online identity conflicts and described ambivalence toward Facebook. Students were concerned about online activity risks and lack of personal control. Their postings were guided by common sense and what they believed was expected from medical students. Students desired recommendations for appropriate content and suggested raising awareness through discussion. Conclusions:Medical students viewed online postings through a lens of personal risk. They desired recommendations but were sensitive to feeling controlled by their school.

Chretien, KC, Greysen, SR, Chretien, JP, Kind, T. (2009). Online posting of unprofessional content by medical students. JAMA, 302 (12), 1309-1315.

Web 2.0 applications, such as social networking sites, are creating new challenges for medical professionalism. The scope of this problem in undergraduate medical education is not well-defined. Here, Chretien et al assess the experience of US medical schools with online posting of unprofessional content by students and existing medical school policies to address online posting. Results show that 60% of US medical schools responded (78/130). Of these schools, 60% (47/78) reported incidents of students posting unprofessional online content. Violations of patient confidentiality were reported by 13% (6/46). Policies that cover student-posted online content were reported by 38% (28/73) of deans. Of schools without such policies, 11 % (5/46) were actively developing new policies to cover online content. They conclude that many responding schools had incidents of unprofessional student online postings but they may not have adequate policy in place.

DeCamp, M. Cunningham, AM (2013). Social media: The way forward or a waste of time for physicians? J R Coll Physicians Edinb 43, 318-322.

Social media is everywhere; its use has grown exponentially over recent years. The prevalence of these outlets for communication raises some interesting and potentially risky issues for physicians. On the one hand, some believe that physicians should have a strong social media presence and can benefit greatly from access to a global community of peers and leaders through blogs, online forums, Facebook, Twitter and other communication channels. Dr Anne Marie Cunningham provides a strong case for the advantages of developing networks and figuring out who and what to pay attention to online. On the other hand however, others believe that the use of social media places doctors at a professional and ethical risk and is essentially a waste of time for the already time-pressured physician. Professor DeCamp argues that the risks of social media outweigh their benefits. It makes it more difficult to maintain a distinction between private and professional personas, and as we have seen, one mistyped or inappropriate comment can have potentially negative consequences when taken out of context. With an already time-pressured day, the priority should be patients, not tweets. Whatever your thoughts on the benefits and risks of social media, it is here to stay. Specific guidelines and guidance are needed to ensure that physicians who decide to join an online community reap the benefits of global communication, rather than regret it.

DeCamp, M., Koenig, TE., Chisolm, MS. (2013). Social media and physicians’ online identity crisis. JAMA, 310 (6), 581-582.

Physicians are increasingly counted among Face-book’s 1 billion users and Twitter’s 500 million members. Beyond these social media platforms, other innovative social media tools are being used in medical practice, including for online consultation, in the conduct of clinical research, and in medical school curricula. Social media content is brief, characterized as “many-to-many” communication, and able to spread rapidly across the Internet beyond a person’s control. These and other features of social media create new dimensions to traditional ethical issues, particularly around maintaining appropriate boundaries between physicians and patients.Recognizing this challenge and given reports of physician misconduct online, institutions, medical boards, and physician organizations worldwide have promulgated recommendations for physician use of social media. A common theme among these recommendations—with a recent example from the American College of Physicians and Federation of State Medical Boards4—is that physicians should manage patient-physician boundaries online by separating their professional and personal identities. In this Viewpoint, we contend that this is operationally impossible, lacking in agreement among active physician social media users, inconsistent with the concept of professional identity, and potentially harmful to physicians and patients. A simpler approach that avoids these pitfalls asks physicians not whether potential social media content is personal or professional but whether it is appropriate for a public space.

Foley, NM., Maher, BM., Corrigan, MA. (2014). Social media and tomorrow’s medical students- How do they fit ? Journal of Surgical Education, 71, (3), 385-390.

Objective : The main aim of our study was to establish the prevalence of social networking accounts among a group of second-level students (aged 15-18 years), to determine whether they used privacy settings, and to examine their attitudes to various aspects of social media use in medicine. Design : A descriptive study design was employed. The questionnaire was constructed specifically to address the attitudes of students to social media. No similar suitable validated questionnaire could be identified. The questionnaire consisted of 20 questions with a mixture of open answer, yes/no, and Likert scale response options. Participants : Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Second-level school children interested in studying medicine and aged between 15 and 18 years took part. Setting : An annual open day organized by the School of Medicine in University College Cork, Ireland, formed the setting. The day comprised a mixture of lectures, demonstrations, and practical sessions designed to give the students insight into life as a medical student. Results : A total of 96 students attended, and all were handed the questionnaires. Of them, 88 students completed the survey. Overall, 90.9% of students had Facebook accounts and 53% had Twitter accounts. Of those with social media accounts, 14.8% reported having no privacy settings. Most respondents felt that unprofessional behavior on social media sites should be a factor considered in admission to medical schools. Conclusions :Serious consequences can result from lapses in best practice relating to social media behavior. Dedicated reflective learning modules need to be incorporated into undergraduate and postgraduate training programs as a matter of urgency.

Gettig, JP., Lee,N., Fjortoft, N. (2013). Student and Faculty Observations and Perceptions of Professionalism in Online Domain Scenarios. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77, (9), Article 192.

Objectives. To relate common online scenarios to tenets of professionalism, assess frequency of observed scenarios in 4 online domains, and compare second-year (P2) pharmacy students, fourth-year (P4) pharmacy students’, and faculty members’ perceptions of professionalism. Methods. A 63-item survey instrument consisting of scenarios of behavior in online domains was developed. Using a Likert scale, participants reported whether they had observed each scenario and whether each scenario was professional. Results. Of the 296 participants who completed the survey instrument, 53% were P2 students, 49% were P4 students, and 68% were faculty members. Most of the observed scenario responses were for social networking sites. There were statistical differences among the 3 cohorts’ perception over whether a scenario demonstrated professional behavior in 6 of the 10 most frequently observed scenarios, and 4 out of 6 of these scenarios were in the social networking domain. Conclusion. Second-year pharmacy students and faculty members were more in alignment with their perception of professionalism then P4 students, suggesting that P4 students may be more complacent in their perception of professionalism.

Gill, J., Harrison, B., Ramnanan, CJ., Wood, TJ., Jalali, A., (2014). Investigating Social Networking Usage among Medical Students. Education In Medicine Journal, 6 (4), e82-86.

Background: Social networking tools are often used in medical education to facilitate teaching, owing to their popularity amongst medical students. This study aimed to determine which tools are most widely used by medical students, particularly for educational purposes, to inform future implementation in medical education. Methods: Preclerkship University of Ottawa medical students were surveyed (response rate n=65/325) regarding the use of  social networking tools, including Facebook®, Twitter®, YouTube®, Google+®, Skype®, text messaging, blogs, Flickr® and Pinterest®. Results: Overall, 85% of respondents use social networking tools for 2 or more hours a day. The tools utilized most frequently on a daily and weekly basis were Facebook (56%) and YouTube® (40%), respectively. Facebook® (53%) and YouTube® (31%) were the most popular tools used specifically for educational purposes, facilitating learning related to lectures and physician skills development, respectively. Conclusion: The majority of students are using social networking tools, but there is some variability in how the tools are used. The variability should be considered when creating educational initiatives.

Hamid, S., Waycott, J., Kurnia, S., Chang, S. (2015). Understanding students’ perceptions of the benefits of online social networking use for teaching and learning. Internet and Higher Education, 26, 1-9.

The recent popularity of social technologies has motivated some university lecturers to use them for Online Social Networking (OSN) educational activities. These technologies have enormous potential to enhance the teaching and learning experience. However, there have been limited studies assessing how to effectively use social technologies and what the impacts are on students’ learning experience, particularly with regard to their value in enhancing interactions. This paper focuses on students’ experiences with using OSN for student–student and student–lecturer interactions. A total of nine focus group discussions with 46 students were held in Malaysian and Australian universities. A thematic analysis revealed that students identified a number of positive outcomes from using OSN to interact with each other and with their lecturers. The findings contribute to current understanding about how students leverage social technologies to enhance interaction among themselves, with their lecturers, and with the content of the course.

Harrison, B.; Gill, J, Jalali, Al. (2014).  Social Media Etiquette for the Modern Medical StudentThe International Journal of Medical Students, [S.l.], v. 2, n. 2, p. 64-67, jun. 2014.

Most medical students worldwide are using some form of social media platform to supplement their learning via file sharing and to stay up-to-date on medical events. Often, social media may blur the line between socialization and educational use, so it is important to be aware of how one is utilizing social media and how to remain professional. Research has yielded some troublesome themes of misconduct: drunken behaviour, violations of confidentiality and defamation of institutions. Because there is no universal policy to monitor online professionalism, there exists the potential for indiscretions to occur. It has been reported that misdemeanours can affect future residency placements and employment for medical students. Accordingly, studies suggest that educators need to recognize this new era of professionalism and adapt policies and reprimands to meet modern outlets where professionalism may be violated.

Jain A, Petty E, Jaber R, Tackett S, Purkiss J, Fitzgerald J, White C. (2014). What is appropriate to post on social media? Ratings from students, faculty and the public. Med Educ, 48:157–69.

Objectives :The purpose of this study was to ascertain what medical students, doctors and the public felt was unprofessional for medical students, as future doctors, to post on a social media site, Facebook®. The significance of this is that unprofessional content reflects poorly on a student, which in turn can significantly affect a patient’s confidence in that student’s clinical abilities. Methods : An online survey was designed to investigate the perceptions of University of Michigan medical students, attending physicians and non-health care university-wide employees (that serves as a subset of the public) regarding mock medical students’ Facebook® profile screenshots. For each screenshot, respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to rate ‘appropriateness’ and whether they would be ‘comfortable’ having students posting such content as their future doctors. Results : Compared with medical students, faculty members and public groups rated images as significantly less appropriate (p < 0.001) and indicated that they would be less comfortable (p < 0.001) having posting students as future doctors. All three groups rated screenshots containing derogatory or private information about patients, followed by images suggesting marijuana use, as least appropriate. Images conveying intimate heterosexual couples were rated as most appropriate. Overall, the doctor group, females and older individuals were less permissive when compared with employee and student groups, males and younger individuals, respectively. Conclusions : The most significant conclusion of our study is that faculty members, medical students and the ‘public’ have different thresholds of what is acceptable on a social networking site. Our findings will prove useful for students to consider the perspectives of patients and faculty members when considering what type of content to post on their social media sites. In this way, we hope that our findings provide insight for discussions, awareness and the development of guidelines related to online professionalism for medical students.

Lupton, D. (2014). Feeling better connected : Academics’ use of social media. Canberra : News & Media Reserach Centre, University of Canberra.

This report outlines findings from an international online survey of 711 academics about their use of social media as part of their work conducted in January 2014. The survey sought to identify the tools that the respondents used, those they found most useful and the benefits and the drawbacks of using social media as a university faculty member or postgraduate student. The results offer insights into the sophisticated and strategic ways in which some academics are using social media and the many benefits they have experienced for their academic work. These benefits included connecting and establishing networks not only with other academics but also people or groups outside universities, promoting openness and sharing of information, publicising and development of research and giving and receiving support. While the majority of the respondents were very positive about using social media, they also expressed a range of concerns. These included issues of privacy and the blurring of boundaries between personal and professional use, the risk of jeopardising their career through injudicious use of social media, lack of credibility, the quality of the content they posted, time pressures, social media use becoming an obligation, becoming a target of attack, too much self-promotion by others, possible plagiarism of their ideas and the commercialisation of content and copyright issues. The report ends by contextualising the findings within the broader social and political environment and outlining areas for future research.

Patel, PD., Roberts, JL, Ziegler, C., Ostapchuk, M., Miller, KH. (2012). The responsible use of online social networking: Who should mentor medical students? Teach Learn Med., 24 (4), 348-354.

BackgroundAs medical students become more active in online social networking (OSN), there are increasing concerns regarding violations of patient privacy and a lack of professionalism. Purpose: Students need to be mentored, but who is best suited to the task? We hypothesized that residents are closer to students in usage and attitudes toward online communication than are faculty. If so, they would be more credible as mentors. Method: We surveyed faculty (N = 16), 1st-year residents (N = 120), and 3rd-year medical students (N = 130) to compare attitudes about OSN and the online usage patterns. Results: We found residents to be more like students in usage patterns of personal electronic media and in their choice of the mentoring techniques that should be used. Conclusion: Residents say they were not prepared to mentor students without additional guidance but were more confident than faculty members that they had the knowledge to do so.

Wang, AT., Sandhu, NP., Wittich, CM., Mandrekar, JN., Beckman, TJ. (2012). Using social media to improve continuing medical education : A survey of course participants. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 December; 87(12): 1162–1170.

Objective:To determine continuing medical education (CME) course participants’ use of social media (SM) and their attitudes about the value of SM for enhancing CME education and to examine associations between participants’ characteristics and attitudes toward SM. Participants and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey and validation study of 539 participants at a Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine CME course in November 2011. The Social Media Use and Perception Instrument (SMUPI) consisted of 10 items (5-point Likert scales) and categorical response options. The main outcome measures were psychometric characteristics of the SMUPI scale, course participants’ use of SM, and their attitudes regarding the importance of SM for enhancing CME. Results: Of 539 CME course participants, 327 (61%) responded to the SMUPI survey. Most respondents (291 [89%]) reported using SM, with the most common types being YouTube (189 of the 327 participants [58%]) and Facebook (163 of 327 [50%]). Factor analysis revealed a 2-dimensional assessment of course participants’ attitudes. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach α) was excellent for factor 1 (0.94), factor 2 (0.89), and overall (0.94). The CME course participants’ favorable attitudes toward SM were associated with younger age (20-29 years, mean score 3.13; 30-39 years, 3.40; 40-49 years, 3.39; 50-59 years, 3.18; 60-69 years, 2.93; and ≥70 years, 2.92; P=.02), using SM frequently (never, mean score 2.49; less than once monthly, 2.75; once monthly, 3.21; weekly, 3.31; and daily, 3.81; P<.0001), and professional degree (PhD, mean score 3.00; MD, 3.05; DO, 3.35; PA, 3.42; and NP, 3.50; P=.01). Conclusion: We describe the first validated measure of CME course participants’ use of and attitudes toward SM. Our results suggest that CME course directors should guide SM strategies toward more youthful, technology-savvy CME participants and that SM will become increasingly worthwhile in CME as younger learners continue to enter the profession.

5. Applications des medias sociaux dans un cours ou programme: exemples concrets

Bahner, DP., Adkins, E., Pate, N., Donle, C., Nagel, R., & Kman, NE. (2012). How we use social media to supplement a novel curriculum in medical education. Medical Teacher, 34(6), 439–444.

Background: The millennial learner is reliant on technology to gain knowledge. Social media in the form of Twitter and Facebook provide a unique way to reach these learners. Aims: To demonstrate a supplement to a curriculum using “push technology” via Twitter and Facebook to deliver educational content to mobile devices. Methods: A curriculum consisting of high-yield ultrasound concepts was developed and posted to Twitter @EDUltrasound daily. Followers received tweets “pushed” directly to their mobile devices. Following the year-long program, followers were surveyed regarding the program’s effectiveness. To determine the ways in which tweets were reaching users, followers were categorized demographically. Results: Daily “tweets” were posted each morning beginning on July 1, 2010. By the end of the year, there were 87 followers on Twitter and 78 on Facebook. The majority of followers (55.6%) had not previously used Twitter. The majority of followers (88.9%) found Twitter user-friendly, while most (81.5%) found the information useful. Conclusions: Due to ease of use and widespread applicability, Twitter and Facebook are excellent applications of “push technology” as a means to deliver educational content. This pilot project demonstrates the potential of social media to both supplement and enhance traditional educational methods.

George, DR., Dellasega, C. (2011). Uses of social media in graduate-level medical humanities education: Two pilot studies from Penn State College of Medicine. Medical Teacher, 33 (8), 429-434.

Background: Social media strategies in education have gained attention for undergraduate students, but there has been relatively little application with graduate populations in medicine. Aims: To use and evaluate the integration of new social media tools into the curricula of two graduate-level medical humanities electives offered to 4th-year students at Penn State College of Medicine. Methods: Instructors selected five social media tools–Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, blogging and Skype–to promote student learning. At the conclusion of each course, students provided quantitative and qualitative course evaluation. Results: Students gave high favourability ratings to both courses, and expressed that the integration of social media into coursework augmented learning and collaboration. Others identified challenges including: demands on time, concerns about privacy and lack of facility with technology. Integrating social media tools into class activities appeared to offer manifold benefits over traditional classroom methods, including real-time communication outside of the classroom, connecting with medical experts, collaborative opportunities and enhanced creativity. Conclusions: Social media can augment learning opportunities within humanities curriculum in medical schools, and help students acquire tools and skill-sets for problem solving, networking, and collaboration. Command of technologies will be increasingly important to the practice of medicine in the twenty-first century.

Gualtieri, L., Javetski, G., Corless, H. (2012). The integration of social media into courses: A literature review and case study from experiences at Tufts University School of Medicine. Future Learning, 1, 79-102.

What are the benefits and drawbacks of integrating social media into higher education and, specifically, graduate medical and health education? In order to explore the answer to this question we conducted a literature search and introduced social media into a course at Tufts University School of Medicine. We report on student surveys that were designed to uncover students’ expectations for, knowledge of, and comfort with social media. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive when asked about the benefits to learning about social media in an academic setting, which was one of the key questions we sought to answer. We also provide an assessment of social media’s potential from the perspectives of students, faculty, administrators, and people outside the institution.

Kind, P., Patel, P., Lie, D., Chrétien, K.C. (2013). Twelve tips for using social media as a medical educator. Medical Teacher, nov., 1-7.

Background: We now live, learn, teach and practice medicine in the digital era. Social networking sites are used by at least half of all adults. Engagement with social media can be personal, professional, or both, for health-related and educational purposes. Use is often public. Lapses in professionalism can have devastating consequences, but when used well social media can enhance the lives of and learning by health professionals and trainees, ultimately for public good. Both risks and opportunities abound for individuals who participate, and health professionals need tips to enhance use and avoid pitfalls in their use of social media and to uphold their professional values. Aims and methods: This article draws upon current evidence, policies, and the authors’ experiences to present best practice tips for health professions educators, trainees, and students to build a framework for navigating the digital world in a way that maintains and promotes professionalism. Results and conclusions: These practical tips help the newcomer to social media get started by identifying goals, establishing comfort, and connecting. Furthermore, users can ultimately successfully contribute, engage, learn, and teach, and model professional behaviors while navigating social media.

Lie, D., Trial, J., Schaff, P., Wallace, R., Elliott, D. (2013). “Being the best we can be”: Medical students’ reflections on physician responsibility in the social media era. Academic Medicine, 88 (2), 240-245.

Purpose: To examine attitudes, self-reported behaviors, and intended actions related to medical students’ use of online social media after an educational intervention. Method: In 2011, 180 first-year medical students at the Keck School of Medicine participated in a required two-hour session on the relevance of online social media use to professionalism. Students submitted postsession written reflections about their online presence and professional roles. The authors qualitatively analyzed and coded these reflections for emerging themes. They also examined postsession evaluations and conducted a four-month follow-up survey to identify changes in students’ online social networking behaviors. Results: All 180 students submitted written reflections and postsession evaluations. The authors identified 10 theme categories within three domains (immediate action, intended future action, value change) from the reflections. The most common themes were “role awareness” (144/539), “did nothing” (94/539), and “intention to edit” (84/539). On a scale of 1 to 5, students rated the overall session quality at 3.92 (standard deviation 0.28). Sixty-four percent (115/180) of the students responded to the follow-up survey. Of those, 40% (46/115) reported editing or changing their Web presence after the session, and 24% (28/115) anticipated spending less time on online social networking. Conclusions: Attending a required session in a professionalism course led to thoughtful reflection, increased professional role awareness, and intention to edit and monitor future online presence among first-year medical students. After four months, students reported continued monitoring and editing of their online presence. Future studies should examine whether reinforcement throughout training is needed to maintain vigilance.